Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that targets an essential organ in the digestive system known as Pancreas. Pancreatic cancer usually appears as exocrine and endocrine tumors. It is necessary to understand its types, symptoms, and risk factors if a person wants to raise awareness and encourage early detection.
The most prevalent and aggressive type of tumors are exocrine tumors, including adenocarcinomas; endocrine tumors are uncommon. Stomach pain, weight loss, jaundice, and abdominal pain are typical signs of pancreatic cancer. Several risk factors, including smoking, obesity, family history, and specific genetic conditions, influences its development.
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Types of Pancreatic Cancer
There are various forms of pancreatic cancer, each with specific characteristics and behaviors. Because there are multiple forms of pancreatic cancer, it is essential to understand them.
- Exocrine Tumors: About 95% of pancreatic tumors are exocrine tumors, which develop from exocrine cells that make digesting enzymes. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma originates in the pancreatic ducts and is the most common exocrine tumor. It frequently spreads to surrounding organs and multiplies. Due to their aggressive nature, adenocarcinomas tend to be found at an advanced stage.
- Endocrine Tumors: Endocrine tumors, also known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) or islet cell tumors, develop from the hormone-producing cells of the Pancreas. They are uncommon and grow more slowly than adenocarcinomas. Functional and non-functional tumors are additional categories for endocrine tumors.
- Functional Endocrine Tumors: These tumors release hormones that cause specific symptoms. For example, insulinomas create too much insulin, which results in hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Gastrinomas’ excessive gastrin production causes peptic ulcers and overproduction of stomach acid. Glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas are some more functional tumors.
- Non-functional Endocrine Tumors: Early detection is challenging since these tumors do not produce many hormones. They are typically diagnosed when symptoms of tumor development or metastasis emerge at a later stage.
Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms
Identifying the symptoms of pancreatic cancer is essential for early detection and effective treatment. While individual symptoms may differ, several common symptoms require attention:
- Abdominal Pain: A red flag can be persistent upper abdomen or back pain. After eating or lying down, it can get worse.
- Weight Loss: People with pancreatic cancer may experience unintentional and unjustified weight loss. Even when calorie consumption is constant, this can still happen.
- Jaundice: A blockage in the bile ducts brought on by pancreatic cancer can be indicated by yellowing of the skin and eyes, black urine, and light-colored feces.
- Digestive Issues: Poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, and changes in bowel habits are just a few of the symptoms that can result from pancreatic cancer’s impact on digestion.
- Fatigue: Patients with pancreatic cancer frequently experience unexplained fatigue and weakness. Metabolic changes brought on by cancer can be the source of these symptoms.
- New-onset Diabetes: In rare situations, pancreatic cancer can interfere with the synthesis of insulin, which results in the onset of diabetes.
Pancreatic Cancer’s Risk Factors
Pancreatic cancer is a complex disease with several risk factors that can increase a person’s chances of developing this condition. While some risk factors are beyond our control, there are others that we can actively manage to reduce the risk. Understanding these risk factors is crucial for early detection, prevention, and effective management of pancreatic cancer. Let’s delve into some of the key risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer:
Advancing age is a significant risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Most cases of pancreatic cancer are diagnosed in individuals over the age of 65. The risk increases significantly after the age of 50, with the highest incidence rates observed in those aged 70 and above.
Cigarette smoking is one of the most well-established risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Smokers are two to three times more likely to develop pancreatic cancer compared to non-smokers. The harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke can damage the DNA in pancreatic cells, leading to the formation of cancerous cells.
A family history of pancreatic cancer or certain inherited genetic syndromes can increase the risk. Individuals with two or more first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, or children) who have had pancreatic cancer are at a higher risk. Additionally, certain genetic conditions, such as Lynch syndrome and hereditary pancreatitis, are also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
Chronic inflammation of the pancreas, known as chronic pancreatitis, is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Prolonged inflammation can lead to the development of abnormal cells and increase the likelihood of cancerous changes in the pancreas.
Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is complex, there is evidence to suggest that long-standing diabetes may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Individuals with diabetes face a slightly higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to those without diabetes. It is essential for individuals with diabetes to manage their condition effectively and maintain regular check-ups with their healthcare provider.
Obesity is a modifiable risk factor that scientists have linked to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Excess body weight, particularly around the waistline, may contribute to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, both of which can promote the development of pancreatic cancer.
Diet and Lifestyle
Certain dietary and lifestyle factors may play a role in pancreatic cancer risk. Consuming a diet rich in red and processed meats, saturated fats, and lacking in fruits and vegetables has been shown to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, heavy alcohol consumption has been linked to pancreatic cancer.
It is important to note that having one or more of these risk factors does not necessarily mean a person will develop pancreatic cancer. Conversely, individuals without these risk factors can still develop the disease. However, being aware of these risk factors can help individuals make informed choices about their lifestyle, undergo appropriate screenings, and seek medical advice if they have concerns.
Exocrine and endocrine tumors represent two examples of the various complex diseases classified as pancreatic cancer. Early detection depends on identifying the symptoms, which include abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice.
Additionally, awareness of risk factors, including smoking, obesity, and family history, can help with early detection and prevention. A greater understanding of these factors is essential for preventing pancreatic cancer and improving the treatment of patients.
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